By George Aaron Broadwell BA MA PhD
This publication is the main complete reference grammar of Choctaw, an American Indian language spoken by way of nearly 11 thousand humans situated basically in Mississippi and Oklahoma. according to nineteen years of box paintings with audio system of the Mississippi and Oklahoma dialects and greater than one hundred fifty years of written Choctaw fabric, A Choctaw Reference Grammar comprises the main whole description thus far of the morphology of the language in addition to an intensive remedy of word constitution, be aware order, case marking, and complementation.The Choctaw tribe used to be divided into Oklahoma and Mississippi teams in the course of the Indian elimination of the 1830s. at the present time the vast majority of fluent audio system one of the Oklahoma Choctaws are greater than 40 years outdated, and few kids communicate the language. even supposing extra childrens one of the Mississippi Choctaws study the language, the quantity is declining. simply because language is essential to holding the Choctaws’ lifestyle and either dialects of Choctaw are endangered, cautious documentation of the grammatical constitution of the language is seriously vital. Compiled through the top scholarly specialist at the Choctaw language, George Aaron Broadwell, this quantity is either a realistic advisor to local audio system and an quintessential instruction manual for linguists.
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Extra resources for A Choctaw Reference Grammar
For example, the underlying form of the verb 'to kill' is probably bi: (14) ish-bi-h ~sI-~~~I-TNs 'you kill' Phonology When no prefix is present, an epenthetic a appears. (15a) abi-h kill-TNS 'she/he/it/they kill' We can view this insertion of this a as a device that ensures that the verb stem meets the minimal length requirements for a word. See chapter 9 for more details on short verbs. 4. General rules of Choctaw phonology Nicklas (1974) and Ulrich (1986) are the principal sources for a detailed discussion of Choctaw phonology.
26 CHOCTAW REFERENCE GRAMMAR have short vowels in the underlying forms of these suffixes, they can be orthographically represented this way without a problem. 2. ' However, the class I1 prefixes are a lexical exception. 5. 1. Assimilations with -1i The verbal suffix -1i (discussed in chapter 8) is associated with a somewhat idiosyncratic set of assimilations. Ulrich (1986) contains a comprehensive discussion of the subject, and should be consulted for details. 2. Rules applying in grades There are also some rather complex morphophonological rules associated with the verbal grades, treated in detail by Nicklas (1974) and Ulrich (1986).
Higher-level classification within the family is controversial. 1. Choctaw is closely related to Chickasaw, and the two languages form the n . ~two languages are perhaps as closely group Western M ~ s k o ~ e aThe related as Spanish and Portuguese. While they show many similarities, many Choctaws report that they cannot understand Chickasaw. Because Choctaw is more widely spoken, and because many Chickasaws have been exposed to Choctaw through Bible translations, Chickasaws are more often able to understand Choctaw.
A Choctaw Reference Grammar by George Aaron Broadwell BA MA PhD