By Elmer R. Rusco
The Indian Reorganization Act (IRA) of 1934 has been ordinarily stated because the most crucial statute affecting local american citizens after the overall Allotment Act of 1887, and it really is the most very important unmarried statute affecting local americans throughout the two-thirds of a century because its passage. Over part the local governments within the modern U.S. are prepared below its provisions or below separate statutes that parallel the IRA in significant methods. even though the influence of the IRA has been largely studied and debated, no student previously has seemed heavily on the forces that formed its construction and passage. writer Elmer Rusco spent over a decade of study in nationwide and nearby data and different repositories to check the legislative purpose of the IRA, together with the function of matters just like the nature and importance of judge-made Indian legislation; the allotment coverage and its relation to Indian self-government; the character of local American governments sooner than the IRA; the perspectives and activities of John Collier, commissioner of Indian Affairs and chief within the crusade to reform the nation's Indian coverage; and the impression of kinfolk among the president and Congress through the moment 12 months of the hot Deal. Rusco additionally discusses the position of conflicting ideologies and pursuits during this attempt to extend the rights of local american citizens; the final lack of knowledge of local American matters and coverage at the a part of legislators engaged within the writing and passage of the legislation; and the restricted yet the most important influence of Indian involvement within the fight over the IRA. it is a magisterial learn, in line with meticulous examine and considerate research, that would stand as an incredible contribution to the learn of local American existence within the 20th century. regardless of the lasting impression of the IRA, this extraordinary research of the "fateful time" resulting in its construction will undergo because the definitive dialogue of the origins of that landmark legislation.
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Extra resources for A Fateful Time: The Background and Legislative History of the Indian Reorganization Act
53 Second, as in the Navajo case, the crucial element behind the Bureau’s efforts to organize a tribal government to replace an existing structure involved the exploitation of reservation resources. Partly because there were no legal restraints in this instance, the Bureau acted without any attempt to secure the consent of the Indians of the reservation and refused to accept the existing tribal council as legitimate. Third, there was a difference of opinion about whether the existing tribal council had received “recognition” from the Indian Ofﬁce.
These governments were authoritative to their members and in practice their existence could not be ignored completely by Bureau ofﬁcials. No comprehensive listing of Indian governments during the 1920s for the entire nation is available, but the existence of many governments of this sort is obvious (see chap. 2). Another element in the situation is that the general hostility to Indian governments on the part of the bia did not always extend to “business councils,” a relatively new form of Indian government.
Delegates and the ofﬁcers of the council were elected at general councils held irregularly, for indeﬁnite terms of ofﬁce. In 1929, Dupuis said that he had been president for about six years. Another resident of the reservation, Marie Lemery, conﬁrmed this account. The Flathead superintendent, Charles E. ” 45 In the 1920s a dispute arose at Flathead over proposals to build a dam on the reservation to produce electricity. In late 1926 and early 1927, the Rocky Mountain Power Company, a subsidiary of the Montana Power Company, worked with Commissioner Burke and Assistant Commissioner Meritt to Indian Self-Government and the National Government During the 1920s 21 apply for a permit to develop a hydroelectric facility on the reservation.
A Fateful Time: The Background and Legislative History of the Indian Reorganization Act by Elmer R. Rusco