By Alan Cruse
This easy-to-use advisor illuminates key suggestions and phrases in semantics and pragmatics and the examine of which means because it is conveyed via language.
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Extra resources for A Glossary of Semantics and Pragmatics
We say that, for instance, excellent ‘collocates with’ performance, meaning that they go together normally; we can also say that excellent is ‘a normal collocate’ of performance. The other use is to refer to a sequence of words that is compositional (unlike a prototypical idiom, for example), but nonetheless forms a unit in some way. This may simply be because they occur together very frequently, but usually the sequence also has a semantic unity. For instance, one or more of the constituent words may have a special sense which only appears in that combination, or in a limited set of related combinations.
See semantic change. diagnostic vs typical features The diagnostic features of a category are those which distinguish it from all or most of its fellows; the typical features are those which all or most of the members of a category possess. Consider the category of birds. All birds lay eggs, so this is a typical feature. But so do many other creatures, so this feature does not single out the category of birds. On the other hand, only birds have feathers, so the possession of feathers is diagnostic for the category of birds (this feature is also typical).
B: Awful. The ‘full’ form of B’s answer is I feel awful. Cases where an essential piece of information must be recovered by the hearer are not considered elliptical if it is not usual to provide this information explicitly. For instance, Isn’t Pete tall! requires a reference point for tall – tall relative to what? The answer could depend, for instance, on how old Pete is. But this information is not normally encoded, so Isn’t Pete tall! is not considered elliptical. emergent meaning encoding idiom see under blending (conceptual) see under idiom encyclopaedic knowledge see under dictionary meaning vs encyclopaedic meaning entailment A logical relation between propositions.
A Glossary of Semantics and Pragmatics by Alan Cruse