By Walter Leuthold
This e-book has been written often nearby of untamed African ungulates, on the study heart in Tsavo East nationwide Park, V oi, Kenya. whereas this had many gains, there have been additionally a couple of drawbacks. the most this type of is the truth that Voi isn't really precisely on the hub of clinical job, whether we limit ourselves to African ungulates. therefore, while I had felt at the start that i used to be sufficiently accustomed to ethological paintings on those animals to write down an invaluable evaluation, it quickly grew to become woefully obvious that this assumption was once misguided. over the past few years stories on African ungulates have professional liferated and effects are being released in journals just about all over the realm. My situation in East Africa used to be occasionally under excellent with admire to entry to the newest literature, and that i depended to a substantial quantity at the goodwill of affiliates in giving or lending me appropriate papers. i'm satisfied to file that I bought loads of help and cooperation during this admire. however, i could have over seemed a few vital papers inadvertently; their authors aren't suppose slighted through such omissions, which purely mirror availability of literature to me. Readers can also detect a substantial geographical bias in desire of East Africa, on the price of different African areas, fairly South Africa.
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Additional resources for African Ungulates: A Comparative Review of Their Ethology and Behavioral Ecology
The Concept of Home Range Contrary to once widespread popular OpllllOn most terrestrial-and indeed many aquatic-animals do not roam ad libitum over vast areas, but generally confine their activities to one or several circumscribed areas in the course of the year and, mostly, their entire lifetime. While a number of earlier authors noted this fact, it was mainly Hediger (1942/50, 1949, 1951) in Europe, and Burt (1940, 1943, 1949) in America, who pointed it out more emphatically and introduced the appropriate concepts and terms into mammalogical literature.
It is perhaps somewhat surprising that more species do not make use of the ability to rise up on the hindlegs, which at least the males must all possess for mating and which domestic goats show extensively in the context of feeding. Digging, usually to obtain roots or bulbs, occurs in a number of ungulates employing different means: warthog use their elongated snout and nasal disk; elephants their tusks, sometimes also the trunk and/or forefeet; some bovids may also use their forefeet on occasions, for instance oryx (Shortridge, 1934; Root, 1972) or springbok (Shortridge, 1934; Bigalke, 1972).
Then 34 he may leave without any further action, but the entire ceremony is a very drawn-out and elaborate behavioral sequence. In the end, the female's feces are buried under soil (through the male's scraping) and under the male's dung. Both sexes adopt visually striking postures for both urination and defecation, which may have a communicatory function (Tinley, 1969, pp. 24/25; Hendrichs and Hendrichs, 1971, pp. 36-39; Hendrichs, 1975a; pers. ). Gerenuk. Defecation and urination are entirely diffuse in the females, more or less diffuse but generally combined in adult males.
African Ungulates: A Comparative Review of Their Ethology and Behavioral Ecology by Walter Leuthold