By Joane Nagel
Does activism topic? This e-book solutions with a transparent "yes." American Indian Ethnic Renewal strains the expansion of the yank Indian inhabitants over the last 40 years, while the variety of local american citizens grew from fewer than one-half million in 1950 to almost 2 million in 1990. This quadrupling of the yank Indian inhabitants can't be defined through emerging beginning premiums, declining demise premiums, or immigration. as an alternative, the expansion within the variety of American Indians is the results of an elevated willingness of american citizens to spot themselves as Indians. what's using this elevated ethnic identity? In American Indian Ethnic Renewal, Joane Nagel identifies a number of ancient forces that have converged to create an city Indian inhabitants base, a reservation and concrete Indian organizational infrastructure, and a wide cultural weather of ethnic delight and militancy. imperative between those forces was once federal Indian "Termination" coverage which, satirically, used to be designed to assimilate and de-tribalize local the USA. Reactions opposed to Termination have been nurtured by way of the Civil Rights period surroundings of ethnic satisfaction to turn into a primary concentration of the local rights activist flow often called "Red Power." This resurgence of yankee Indian ethnic satisfaction encouraged elevated Indian ethnic identity, introduced a renaissance in American Indian tradition, language, artwork, and spirituality, and at last contributed to the alternative of Termination with new federal guidelines putting forward tribal Self- choice. American Indian Ethnic Renewal deals a normal concept of ethnic resurgence which stresses either constitution and agency--the function of politics and the significance of collective and person action--in knowing how ethnic teams revitalize and reinvent themselves. students and scholars of yank Indians, social routine and activism, and up to date usa historical past, in addition to the final reader attracted to local American existence, will all locate this an interesting and informative paintings
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Extra resources for American Indian ethnic renewal : Red power and the resurgence of identity and culture
8. , p. S. Bureau of the Census, American Indian Population Estimates by Tribe, unpublished table, 1981. 9. Ralph Linton, Acculturation in Seven American Indian Societies (New York Appleton-Century, 1940), p. 542. 10. , The Problem of Indian Administration (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1928), pp. 6, 87, 96. 11. " Like other terms used to depict "Indian" ethnicity, such as "pan-Indian" or "intertribal," "supratribal" is an inclusive term used to refer to all native members of American society regardless of tribal affiliation.
Figures in Black: Words, Signs, and the "Racial" Se//(New York: Oxford University Press, 1987). 14. Waters, Ethnic Options: Choosing Identities in America. What Stanley Lieberson refers to as "unhyphenated white" ("Unhyphenated Whites in the United States," Ethnic and Racial Studies 8 : 159-180). For a discussion of the social construction of "whiteness," see Ruth Frankenberg, White Women, Race Matters: The Social Construction of Whiteness (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, 1993); David R.
Constructing Ethnic Identity 29 The political recognition of a particular ethnic group can reshape the designated group's self-awareness and organization, as well as affect patterns of identification and mobilization among ethnic groups not officially recognized. This is especially likely when official designations are thought to be advantaging or disadvantaging in some way. In the United States, white ethnic self-awareness was heightened as desegregation and affirmative action programs got under way in the 1960s and 1970s.
American Indian ethnic renewal : Red power and the resurgence of identity and culture by Joane Nagel