An Ethnographic/sociolinguistic approach to language - download pdf or read online

By Charlene Rivera

ISBN-10: 0905028198

ISBN-13: 9780905028194

ISBN-10: 0905028201

ISBN-13: 9780905028200

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Sample text

It is interesting, in this last example, that the character's responses are given, but the event to which they are responding is not in fact mentioned.  This is not to say that these judgments were either valid or invalid, but only to point out that they were necessarily relative.  Thus, a child who uses a somewhat montonous rising tone at the end of each clause, as in one of the examples given earlier, is not necessarily incapable of other kinds of prosodic modulation in a task of this kind, but may well be interpreting the task as a test of his or her ability to identify and describe what he or she sees in each picture as the page is turned.

Major influences on its development were Fillmore's (1979) frame semantics, Halliday & Hasan's (1976) work on cohesion, the general theoretical discussions of Hymes (1972, 1980) and others on genres and on communicative competence, Labov's (1972) analyses of narratives, and Gumperz (1976, 1977, 1981) and Cook­Gumperz's (1977) work on the negotiation of intent in natural conversation.  The improvisational nature of the creation of meaning in face­to­face talk, that has been stressed by Fred Erickson (1975) and other students of face­to­face interaction, was the focus of attention in this project.

The examples are drawn from the English samples but the discussion applies to the Spanish samples as well.  Many of the narratives, especially of the younger children, did not in fact exhibit even this much coherence. More complexly, coherent narratives also exhibited relations of cause and effect, event and result, predicted outcome and actual outcome, event and character response, or showed relations between responses or viewpoints of two or more characters.  Clause Type as defined by Labov, particularly the distinction of Orientation and Complicating Action Clauses.

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An Ethnographic/sociolinguistic approach to language proficiency assessment by Charlene Rivera

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